Bosch’s new 300-millimeter wafer fab

Six reasons why it is one of the world's most modern chip factories

Electronically connected, highly automated production

All the roughly 100 machines and lines in the 10,000-square-meter cleanroom are electronically connected - with each other and with the complex building infrastructure by means of a central database. To make this possible, 300 kilometers of data lines were laid. Such a setup allows as many as 1,000 data channels to be recorded for each machine in real time, and relayed to a server in the plant. This centralized data architecture in the wafer fab is one of the biggest strengths of the new Bosch plant. Taken together, the production data generated is equivalent to 500 pages of text per second. In just one day, this would be equivalent to more than 42 million pages weighing 22 metric tons. One of the things this wealth of data allows is the ability to pinpoint at any time where each individual wafer is in the production process, where it is going next, and when it will arrive. The wafers are transported from machine to machine by a completely automatic system featuring individual pods known as FOUPs (front opening unified pods). Each FOUP can transport up to 25 wafers. There is no
longer any manual transportation at all.

First AIoT factory
The Dresden wafer fab is Bosch's first AIoT factory. AIoT stands for the
combination of artificial intelligence (AI) and the internet of things (IoT). With this,
Bosch is creating a sound basis for data-driven, continuous improvement in
production, and setting new standards for Industry 4.0. Artificial intelligence
methods can be used to evaluate the data generated in the wafer fab. For
example, an AI algorithm can detect even the tiniest anomalies in products.
These anomalies are visible on the wafer surface in the form of specific error
patterns known as signatures. Their causes are immediately analyzed and
deviations from the process corrected without delay, even before they can affect
the reliability of the product. This is the key to further improving the
manufacturing processes and semiconductor quality, as well as to achieving
a high level of process stability. In turn, it means that semiconductor products can go into full-scale production quickly. Furthermore, AI algorithms can precisely
predict whether and when a piece of manufacturing machinery or a robot needs
maintenance or adjustment. In other words, such work is not done according to
a rigid schedule, but precisely when it is needed - and well in advance of any
problems cropping up. AI is also used in production scheduling, saving time and
costs as it guides the wafers through several hundred processing steps at
roughly 100 machines in the plant.

Plant with "digital twin"
There are two Dresden wafer fabs - one in the real world, and one in the digital
world. Experts call this a "digital twin." During construction, all parts of the factory
and all relevant construction data relating to the plant as a whole were recorded
digitally and visualized in a three-dimensional model. The twin comprises roughly
half a million 3D objects, including buildings and infrastructure, supply and
disposal systems, cable ducts and ventilation systems, and machinery and
manufacturing lines. There is even a digital twin of every manufacturing process
and each individual wafer in the plant. This allows Bosch to simulate both
process optimization plans and renovation work without intervening in ongoing
operations. Moreover, any new machinery is always delivered to the plant twice -
once in the real world and once as a data model.

Looking through data glasses
In its Dresden plant, Bosch is making use of augmented reality (AR). Thanks to smart AR glasses and tablets, users will be able to see digital content superimposed on the real environment. For example, an AR app developed by Bosch allows energy data from the wafer fab to be displayed in a virtual model
of the building. This makes it possible to optimize the carbon footprint of the manufacturing machinery. Data glasses also help with construction planning, and in the future will be an important aid for remote maintenance of the machinery and systems by experts who may be thousands of miles away.

5G-ready

To make the transmission of data between machines and computers even more flexible, the new 5G mobile communications standard will soon be introduced at the semiconductor plant. The plant was 5G-ready right from the start: all the requirements for 5G infrastructure were taken into consideration during the construction phase.

Carbon neutral from the start
Environmental protection and sustainability were priorities at the new location from day one. This is why the Dresden wafer fab will be carbon neutral from the outset. To achieve this, Bosch can build on experience gained at the sister plant in Reutlingen. For example, its primary energy supply is exclusively in the form of green electricity and carbon-neutral natural gas. Furthermore, sophisticated
energy management ensures the best possible power consumption in its manufacturing operations.

Mobility Solutions is the largest Bosch Group business sector. It generated sales of 42.1 billion
euros in 2020, and thus contributed 59 percent of total sales from operations. This makes the
Bosch Group one of the leading automotive suppliers. The Mobility Solutions business sector
pursues a vision of mobility that is safe, sustainable, and exciting, and combines the group's
expertise in the domains of personalization, automation, electrification, and connectivity. For its
customers, the outcome is integrated mobility solutions. The business sector's main areas of
activity are injection technology and powertrain peripherals for internal-combustion engines,
diverse solutions for powertrain electrification, vehicle safety systems, driver-assistance and
automated functions, technology for user-friendly infotainment as well as vehicle-to-vehicle and
vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, repair-shop concepts, and technology and services
for the automotive aftermarket. Bosch is synonymous with important automotive innovations,
such as electronic engine management, the ESP anti-skid system, and common-rail diesel
technology.

The Bosch Group is a leading global supplier of technology and services. It employs roughly
395,000 associates worldwide (as of December 31, 2020). The company generated sales
of 71.5 billion euros in 2020. Its operations are divided into four business sectors: Mobility
Solutions, Industrial Technology, Consumer Goods, and Energy and Building Technology.
As a leading IoT provider, Bosch offers innovative solutions for smart homes, Industry 4.0,
and connected mobility. Bosch is pursuing a vision of mobility that is sustainable, safe, and
exciting. It uses its expertise in sensor technology, software, and services, as well as its own
IoT cloud, to offer its customers connected, cross-domain solutions from a single source.
The Bosch Group's strategic objective is to facilitate connected living with products and
solutions that either contain artificial intelligence (AI) or have been developed or manufactured
with its help. Bosch improves quality of life worldwide with products and services that are
innovative and spark enthusiasm. In short, Bosch creates technology that is "Invented for life."
The Bosch Group comprises Robert Bosch GmbH and its roughly 440 subsidiary and regional
companies in some 60 countries. Including sales and service partners, Bosch's global
manufacturing, engineering, and sales network covers nearly every country in the world.
With its more than 400 locations worldwide, the Bosch Group has been carbon neutral since
the first quarter of 2020. The basis for the company's future growth is its innovative strength.
At 129 locations across the globe, Bosch employs some 73,000 associates in research and
development, of which nearly 34,000 are software engineers

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